From The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation, Book IV
CHAP. XIX. How Queen Ethelthryth [Etheldreda] always preserved her virginity, and her body suffered no corruption in the grave. [660-696 A.D.]
KING EGFRID took to wife Ethelthryth, the daughter of Anna, king of the East Angles, of whom mention has been often made; a man of true religion, and altogether noble in mind and deed. She had before been given in marriage to another, to wit, Tondbert, ealdorman of the Southern Gyrwas; but he died soon after he had married her, and she was given to the aforesaid king. Though she lived with him twelve years, yet she preserved the glory of perfect virginity, as I was informed by Bishop Wilfrid, of blessed memory, of whom I inquired, because some questioned the truth thereof; and he told me that he was an undoubted witness to her virginity, forasmuch as Egfrid promised to give him many lands and much money if he could persuade the queen to consent to fulfil her marriage duty, for he knew the queen loved no man more than himself. And it is not to be doubted that this might take place in our age, which true histories tell us happened sometimes in former ages, by the help of the same Lord who promises to abide with us always, even unto the end of the world. For the divine miracle whereby her flesh, being buried, could not suffer corruption, is a token that she had not been defiled by man.
She had long asked of the king that he would permit her to lay aside worldly cares, and to serve only Christ, the true King, in a monastery; and having at length with difficulty prevailed, she entered the monastery of the Abbess Aebba, who was aunt to King Egfrid, at the place called the city of Coludi, having received the veil of the religious habit from the hands of the aforesaid Bishop Wilfrid; but a year after she was herself made abbess in the district called Elge, (Ely) where, having built a monastery, she began, by the example of a heavenly life and by her teaching, to be the virgin mother of many virgins dedicated to God. It is told of her that from the time of her entering the monastery, she would never wear any linen but only woollen garments, and would seldom wash in a hot bath, unless just before the greater festivals, as Easter, Whitsuntide, and the Epiphany, and then she did it last of all, when the other handmaids of Christ who were there had been washed, served by her and her attendants. She seldom ate more than once a day, excepting on the greater festivals, or some urgent occasion. Always, except when grievous sickness prevented her, from the time of matins till day-break, she continued in the church at prayer. Some also say, that by the spirit of prophecy she not only foretold the pestilence of which she was to die, but also, in the presence of all, revealed the number of those that should be then snatched away from this world out of her monastery. She was taken to the Lord, in the midst of her flock, seven years after she had been made abbess; and, as she had ordered, was buried among them in a wooden coffin in her turn, according to the order in which she had passed away.
She was succeeded in the office of abbess by her sister Sexburg, who had been wife to Earconbert, king of Kent. This abbess, when her sister had been buried sixteen years, thought fit to take up her bones, and, putting them into a new coffin, to translate them into the church. Accordingly she ordered some of the brothers to find a stone whereof to make a coffin for this purpose. They went on board ship, for the district of Ely is on every side encompassed with water and marshes, and has no large stones, and came to a small deserted city, not far from thence, which, in the language of the English, is called Grantacaestir, (Grantchester, near Cambridge) and presently, near the city walls, they found a white marble coffin, most beautifully wrought, and fitly covered with a lid of the same sort of stone. Perceiving, therefore, that the Lord had prospered their journey, they returned thanks to Him and carried it to the monastery.
When the grave was opened and the body of the holy virgin and bride of Christ was brought into the light of day, it was found as free from corruption as if she had died and been buried on that very day; as the aforesaid Bishop Wilfrid, and many others that know it, testify. But the physician, Cynifrid, who was present at her death, and when she was taken up out of the grave, had more certain knowledge. He was wont to relate that in her sickness she had a very great tumour under her jaw. ‘And I was ordered,’ said he, ‘to lay open that tumour to let out the noxious matter in it, which I did, and she seemed to be somewhat more easy for two days, so that many thought she might recover from her infirmity; but on the third day she was attacked by the former pains, and being soon snatched out of the world, she exchanged all pain and death for everlasting life and health. And when, so many years after, her bones were to be taken out of the grave, a pavilion being spread over it, and all the congregation, the brothers on the one side, and the sisters on the other, standing about it singing, while the abbess, with a few others, had gone within to take up and wash the bones, on a sudden we heard the abbess within cry out with a loud voice, Glory be to the name of the Lord.’ Not long after they called me in, opening the door of the pavilion, and I found the body of the holy virgin taken out of the grave and laid on a bed, like one asleep; then taking off the veil from the face, they also showed me that the incision which I had made was healed up; so that, in marvellous wise, instead of the open gaping wound with which she had been buried, there then appeared only the slightest trace of a scar. Besides, all the linen clothes in which the body had been wrapped, appeared entire and as fresh as if they had been that very day put about her chaste limbs.’
It is said that when she was sore troubled with the aforesaid tumour and pain in her jaw and neck, she took great pleasure in that sort of sickness, and was wont to say, ‘I know of a surety that I deservedly bear the weight of my trouble on my neck, for I remember that, when I was a young maiden, I bore on it the needless weight of necklaces; and therefore I believe the Divine goodness would have me endure the pain in my neck, that so I may be absolved from the guilt of my needless levity, having now, instead of gold and pearls, the fiery heat of a tumour rising on my neck.’ It happened also that by the touch of those same linen clothes devils were expelled from bodies possessed, and other diseases were at divers times healed; and the coffin wherein she was first buried is said to have cured some of infirmities of the eyes, who, praying with their heads resting upon that coffin, were presently relieved of the pain or dimness in their eyes. So they washed the virgin’s body, and having clothed it in new garments, brought it into the church, and laid it in the sarcophagus that had been brought, where it is held in great veneration to this day. The sarcophagus was found in a wonderful manner to fit the virgin’s body as if it had been made purposely for her, and the place for the head, which was fashioned separately, appeared exactly shaped to the measurement of her head.
Elge is in the province of the East Angles, a district of about six hundred families, of the nature of an island, encompassed, as has been said, with marshes or waters, and therefore it has its name from the great plenty of eels taken in those marshes; there the aforesaid handmaid of Christ desired to have a monastery, because, as we have before mentioned, she came, according to the flesh, of that same province of the East Angles.
CHAP. XX. A Hymn concerning her.
IT seems fitting to insert in this history a hymn concerning virginity, which we composed in elegiac verse many years ago, in praise and honour of the same queen and bride of Christ, and therefore truly a queen, because the bride of Christ; and to imitate the method of Holy Scripture, wherein many songs are inserted in the history, and these, as is well known, are composed in metre and verse.
‘Trinity,Gracious, Divine, Who rulest all the ages; favour my task,
Trinity, Gracious, Divine.
‘Let Maro sound the trumpet of war, let us sing the gifts of peace; the
gifts of Christ we sing, let Maro sound the trumpet of war.
‘Chaste is my song, no rape of guilty Helen; light tales shall be told
by the wanton, chaste is my song.
‘I will tell of gifts from Heaven, not wars of hapless Troy; I will
tell of gifts from Heaven, wherein the earth is glad.
‘Lo! the high God comes to the womb of a holy virgin, to be the Saviour
of men, lo! the high God comes.
‘A hallowed maid gives birth to Him Who gave the world its being; Mary,
the gate of God, a maiden gives Him, birth.
‘The company of her fellows rejoices over the Virgin Mother of Him Who
wields the thunder; a shining virgin band, the company of her fellows
‘Her honour has made many a blossom to spring from that pure shoot,
virgin blossoms her honour has made to spring.
‘Scorched by the fierce flames, the maiden Agatha yielded not; in like
manner Eulalia endures, scorched by the fierce flames.
‘The lofty soul of chaste Tecla overcomes the wild beasts; chaste
Euphemia overcomes the accursed wild beasts.
‘Agnes joyously laughs at the sword, herself stronger than steel,
Cecilia joyously laughs at the foemen’s sword.
‘Many a triumph is mighty throughout the world in temperate hearts;
throughout the world love of the temperate life is mighty.
‘Yea, and our day likewise a peerless maiden has blessed; peerless our
‘Child of a noble sire, and glorious by royal birth, more noble in her
Lord’s sight, the child of a noble sire.
‘Thence she receives queenly honour and a sceptre in this world; thence
she receives honour, awaiting higher honour above.
‘What need, gracious lady, to seek an earthly lord, even now given to
the Heavenly Bridegroom?
‘Christ is at hand, the Bridegroom (why seek an earthly lord?) that
thou mayst follow even now, methinks, in the steps of the Mother of
Heaven’s King, that thou too mayst be a mother in God.
‘Twelve years she had reigned, a bride dedicated to God, then in the
cloister dwelt, a bride dedicated to God.
‘To Heaven all consecrated she lived, abounding in lofty deeds, then to
Heaven all consecrated she gave up her soul.
‘Twice eight Novembers the maid’s fair flesh lay in the tomb, nor did
the maid’s fair flesh see corruption in the tomb.
‘This was Thy work, O Christ, that her very garments were bright and
undefiled even in the grave; O Christ, this was Thy work.
‘The dark serpentflies before the honour due to the holy raiment;
disease is driven away, and the dark serpent flies.
Rage fills the foe who of old conquered Eve; exultant the maiden
triumphs and rage fills the foe.
‘Behold, O bride of God, thy glory upon earth; the glory that awaits
thee in the Heavens behold, O bride of God.
‘In gladness thou receivest gifts, bright amidst the festal torches;
behold! the Bridegroom comes, in gladness thou receivest gifts.
‘And a new song thou singest to the tuneful harp; a new-made bride,
thou exultest in the tuneful hymn.
‘None can part her from them which follow the Lamb enthroned on high,
whom none had severed from the Love enthroned on high.’
Translation: A. M. Sellar, Bede’s Ecclesiastical History of England, George Bell & Sons, 1902.